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HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TIMELINE

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1696
 

Steam Engines: Savery invented a steam-driven water pump

1701

Agriculture: Tull developed the seed drill

1705

Steam Engines: Newcomen made a successful steam engine
1700

 

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Iron and Steel: Darby used coke to make pig iron

1709

1712

Steam Engines: Newcomen made an atmospheric steam engine
1710
 
  1720  

1730

Agriculture: Townsend introduced Four Year Crop Rotation

1733

Textiles: Kay invented the Flying Shuttle
1730

Road Transport: Turnpike roads are constructed

1730's

  1740

Iron and Steel: Huntsman 'rediscovered' steel

1740

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1755

Agriculture: Bakewell experimented with selective breeding
1750

 

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Iron and Steel: First iron rolling mill is opened

1754

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1764

Textiles: Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny

1764

Steam Engines: Watt invented the internal condenser 

1766

Agriculture: Cavendish produced nitrates from nitrogen gas

1769

Steam Engines: Watt improved on Newcomen's steam engine
1760

 

 

Iron and Steel: Darby laid an iron plateway

1760's

Iron and Steel: Boulton opened an ironworks in Birmingham

1762

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Road Transport: Cugnot invented a steam propelled vehicle

1769

1771

Textiles: Arkwright opened a mill at Cromford

1772

Agriculture: Coke began his breeding experiments

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1779

Textiles: Crompton developed the Spinning Mule
1770

 

 

 

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Iron and Steel: Wilkinson bored cylinders for Watt's engine

1775

Iron and Steel: Abraham Darby III built the first iron bridge

1779

1781

Steam Engines: Watt developed the compound steam engine

1782

Agriculture: Tull's seed drill is improved by adding gears

1783

Textiles: Arkwright's Masson Mill opened

1784

Agriculture: Small developed an iron plough

1785

Textiles: Cartwright's steam power loom in use

1786

Steam Engines: Boulton used steam to power his coin factory

1786

Agriculture: Meikle developed a threshing machine

1788

Steam Engines: Boulton used a rotary steam engine in his factory

1789

Railways: Jessop used flanged waggon wheels
1780

 

 

 

 

 

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Steamships: d'Abbans steamship Pyroscaphe launched

1783

Iron and Steel: Cort invented the "puddling process"

1783

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Road Transport: Murdock developed a road steam vehicle

1786

1790

Steam Engines: Arkwright's steam-powered factory opens

1792

Textiles:  Whitney invented the cotton gin
1790

 

 
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1804

Textiles: Jaquard used a punch card for weaving

1805

Railways: Wandsworth-Croydon public railway opened

1806

Railways: Oystermouth passenger railway opened

1808

Railways: Trevithick's "Catch -Me-Who-Can" locomotive is built
1800

 

 

 

 

Road Transport: Trevithick's passenger steam vehicle

1801

Steamships: Symington's Charlotte Dundas steamship

1802

Steamships: Fulton's steam-driven boat used on the Seine

1803

Steamships: Steven's used a twin-screw propeller steamboat

1804

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Steamships: Fulton's steam paddleship, the Clermont

1807

 

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1812

Railways: Blenkinsop's railway locomotive operated

1813

Textiles: Horrocks invented the speed batton

1813

Railways: Hedley's "Puffing Billy" used on a non-toothed track
1810

 

 

 

Road Transport: Macadam developed a new type of road construction

1810

Road Transport: First horse-drawn bus system operated

1812

Steamships: The steamship Comet operated on the Clyde

1812

Road Transport: Telford's London to Holyhead road constructed

1815

Steamships: The steamship Savannah crossed the Atlantic

1819

1820

Railways: Wrought iron rails used to make railways

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1825

Railways: Stockton to Darlington railway line opened

1827

Railways: First railway tunnel built under Liverpool

1829

Railways: Stephenson's "Rocket" won the Rainhill trials

1829

Railways: Sequin built the first French steam locomotive
1820

 

 

 

Steamships: The steamship James Watt was launched

1820

Steamships: The first iron steamship, Aaroon Manby launched

1822

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Road Transport: Dr. Gurney's steam coach operated

1827

Iron and Steel: Neilson improved blast furnace construction

1828

1832

Railways: First steam locomotive railway in France is built

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1835

Railways: Locke designed bulkhead rail

 

1839

Steam Engines: Nasmyth invented the steam hammer
1830

 

 

 

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Steamships: Ericsson and Smith development the screw propeller

1836

Steamships: Brunel's steamship Great Western launched

1837

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1846

Railways: Standard gauge adopted for British railways

 

1840

 

 

Steamships: Cunard shipping line opened

1840

Steamships: Brunel's steamship Great Britain launched

1843

Steamships: Brunel's steamship Great Britain crossed the Atlantic

1845

Steamships: Cunard provide a regular cross-Atlantic service

1847

  1850

 

 

 

Steamships: Elder invented the double steam engine

1854

Iron and Steel: Bessemer developed the basic oxygen converter

1856

Steamships: Brunel's Great Eastern launched

1858

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1863

Railways: First underground railway
1860

Road Transport: Lenoir's gas engine used in road vehicles

1860

Road Transport: Véloe's péde bicycle introduced

1861

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1879

Railways: Von Seimen's electric train operated in Berlin
1870

 

 

Road Transport: Penny farthing bicycles introduced

1870

Road Transport: Otto's four stroke engine developed

1876

Iron and Steel: Gilchrist and Thomas adapted Bessemer's process

1879

1881

Railways: First electric passenger train used in Germany

 

1880

Steamships: Elder developed the triple expansion engine

1881

Road Transport: Benz's petrol-driven motorwagen developed

1885

1890

Railways: First underground electric train operates

 

1890

 

 

 

 

 

Road Transport: Rubber tyres used on bicycles

1890

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Steamships: Elder developed the quadruple expansion engine

1894

Road Transport:  Michelin Brothers used air-filled tyres on cars

1895

Road Transport:  Motorised omnibuses used in Britain

1898

Road Transport:  Gear boxes used in Benz's cars

1899

 

  1900

Road Transport:  Model T Ford started production

1908

1912

Railways: First diesel trains operate in Sweden
1910  

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