Powerpoint Presentation: Biochemistry
Amino acids and proteins
Factors Affecting Enzymes: Substrate concentration
Factors Affecting Enzymes: pH
Factors Affecting Enzymes: Temperature
Enzymes and Homeostasis
Enzymes and Biotechnology
Topic Chapters Index
BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES FOR STANDARD LEVEL IB
Recommended units and SI units
Chemical terms to know
- atom - the smallest part of an element
- the smallest particle of a substance which can exist in a free state (e.g. O2).
- compound - a molecule or particle made of different elements (e.g. H2O)
- element - a type of atom, a substance which cannot be further divided by chemical methods e.g. oxygen
- electromagnetic spectrum - waves of energy (e.g. light rays, UV & infra red radiation)
- electron (e-), proton (H+),
ion (a charged particle), cation (a positively charged particle e.g. Na+ or Ca2+),
anion (a negatively charged particle e.g. Cl- or NO3-),
- solution = solute(substance: solid, liquid or gas) + solvent (liquid).
- hydrophobic - repelled by water, hydrophilic
- attracted to water.
- suspension - very small solid particles dispersed in a liquid.
- sediment - solid particles which settle to the bottom of a liquid.
- precipitate - a solid produced from a reaction in a solution.
- diffusion - the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
- dialysis - selective diffusion of particles through a partially permeable membrane.
- osmosis - the movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration.
- covalent bond - a strong bond formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms e.g. the peptide bond between amino acids.
- hydrogen bonding - a weak bond between hydrogen and a negative element e.g. between hydrogens and oxygens of different water molecules,
- hydrolysis - the breaking of a covalent bond between two organic molecules using water (NB not dissolving in water)
- condensation - the formation of a strong covalent bond between two organic molecules releasing water.
Elements of biological importance
H, O, C, are the most common.
N, S, P are also important as well as the metals
Na, Ca, and Fe.
H, O, C, N, S and P form covalent bonds (single, double or triple
e.g. -C-C-, C=O, -CN).
H, O, C, N, S and P are light.
H, O, C, N, S and P very reactive.
H, O, C, N, S and P produce diverse compounds which are reduced (readily oxidised).
4 different bonds
Forms long chains (polymers)
macromolecules and ring structures.
3 D variation
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