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Powerpoint Presentation: Carbohydrates

Biochemistry Index

Introduction
Lipids
Amino acids and proteins

Water

Enzymes
Enzyme Mechanisms
Factors Affecting Enzymes: Substrate concentration
Factors Affecting Enzymes: pH
Factors Affecting Enzymes: Temperature
Inhibitors
Enzymes and Homeostasis
Enzymes and Biotechnology
Catalase
Haemoglobin
The Steroids

Topic Chapters Index

MOLECULES OF LIFE

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Carbohydrates (elements (CH2O)n

 

Organization:

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides

 

Monosaccharides

5C pentoses (eg ribose, deoxyribose)

6C hexoses (eg glucose, fructose, galactose)

 

Glycoside linkage to form disaccharides

The two sugars are joined by condensation and may be broken by hydrolysis.

Different monosaccharides can be used:

sucrose = glucose + fructose

lactose = glucose + galactose

maltose = glucose + glucose

 

Polysaccharides

Common ones based upon glucose

Branched polysaccharides:
Amylose & amylopectin (starches) are synthesised in plants.
Glycogen is synthesised in animals. It is more highly branched than starches = more compact.

Unbranched polysaccharides:
Cellulose in plant cell walls.

 

Functions of the Carbohydrates

Sugars (mono and disaccharides) - small molecules, soluble in water:

Polysaccharides - large molecules, insoluble in water.

 

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