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Powerpoint Presentation: Lipids
Word Document: The Steroids

Biochemistry Index

Introduction
Carbohydrates
Amino acids and proteins

Water

Enzymes
Enzyme Mechanisms
Factors Affecting Enzymes: Substrate concentration
Factors Affecting Enzymes: pH
Factors Affecting Enzymes: Temperature
Inhibitors
Enzymes and Homeostasis
Enzymes and Biotechnology
Catalase
Haemoglobin
The Steroids

Topic Chapters Index

 

Saturated fatty acids

Unsaturated fatty acids

no double bonds

one or more double bonds

abundant in fats

abundant in oils

more reduced

less reduced

more energy

less energy

high melting point

low melting point

 

FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS IN GENERAL

STRUCTURAL biological membranes (phospholipids, steroids, glycolipids), cushioning (fat deposits round the kidneys)
ELECTRICAL INSULATION myelin sheath round axons
THERMAL INSULATION subcutaneous fat deposits.
WATER PROOFING waxes and oils
ENERGY STORE AND SUBSTRATE very condensed form of energy (37 kJ g-1) used by animals and seeds.
HORMONES steroids
VITAMINS precursor to Vitamin D
BUOYANCY oil droplets in plankton.

MOLECULES OF LIFE

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Lipids (elements C, H, O)

More hydrogen than carbohydrates (more reduced). Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents (alcohols, acetone, chloroform etc.)

Fatty acids: carboxylic acid + long hydrocarbon chain

Saturated fatty acids

 

 

Fats and Oils: fatty acids + glycerol (1, 2 or 3 = mono , di or triglycerides)

Fats and Oils

Two fatty acids joining glycerol Arrow down

Diglyceride

Phospholipids: in lipoprotein membranes (plasma, nuclear, mitochondrial etc.)

Steroids: multiple ring structures (e.g. cholesterol)

Functions: cell membrane structure, digestion (help to emulsify fats), hormones (testosterone etc), vitamins (e.g. Vitamin D), poisons.

Waxes: long chain alcohol + fatty acids

Water proof coating to leaves, fur feathers, insect exoskeletons. Used by bees to construct their honey combs.

 

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