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Powerpoint Presentation: Respiration and Energy

Respiration Index

Glycolysis
Kreb's Cycle
The Electron Transport Chain
Anaerobic Respiration
Photosynthesis and Respiration
The Respiratory Quotient and Respirometers

Topic Chapters Index

 

RESPIRATION

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Carbohydrates (17 kJ g-1), Proteins (17 kJ g-1), Lipids (34 kJ g-1). These are sources of reduced carbon which can supply:

hydrogen atoms Arrow right protons (H+) + electrons (e-)

 

Energy transformations

Light Arrow right Chemical (mostly in chemical bonds)

Chemical Arrow right Heat

Chemical Arrow right Kinetic (movement)

Chemical Arrow right Chemical (coupled reactions)
(e.g. Food Arrow right ATP)

 

The energy in Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

The energy in Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

A stepwise energy release is needed

Complete oxidation of glucose:

Complete oxidation of glucose

Complete oxidation of a fat (lipid):

Complete oxidation of a fat (lipid)

  • This is too much to handle all at once.
  • Therefore energy is released step by step and the energy released is coupled to ATP synthesis.
  • The energy in 1 molecule of glucose is used to synthesise 36 molecules of ATP (37.5 % efficient). This is a very efficient energy conversion (most machines can only manage 20% efficiency).
  • This is because the release of the energy from the food molecules is done stepwise.

 

Coupling the energy released from glucose to ATP

Reaction pathways:

GLYCOLYSIS in the cytoplasm

KREB'S CYCLE in mitochondria of eukaryotes (in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes)

 

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