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Powerpoint Presentation: Enzymes

Biochemistry: Enzyme Index

Enzyme Mechanisms
Factors Affecting Enzymes: Substrate concentration
Factors Affecting Enzymes: pH
Factors Affecting Enzymes: Temperature
Inhibitors
Enzymes and Homeostasis
Enzymes and Biotechnology
Catalase

Topic Chapters Index

 

Cofactors

An additional non-protein molecule that is needed by some enzymes to help the reaction.

Tightly bound cofactors are called prosthetic groups.

Cofactors that are bound and released easily are called coenzymes.

Many vitamins are coenzymes.

 

Inhibitors

Inhibitors are chemicals that reduce the rate of enzymic reactions. The are usually specific and they work at low concentrations.

They block the enzyme but they do not usually destroy it.

Many drugs and poisons are inhibitors of enzymes in the nervous system.

 

 

BIOCHEMISTRY

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Enzymes

A protein with catalytic properties due to its power of specific activation.

Chemical reactions

Chemical reactions need an initial input of energy = THE ACTIVATION ENERGY.
During this part of the reaction the molecules are said to be in a transition state.

Activation Energy

One way to reach the transition state rapidly is to increase the temperature.

But biological systems are very sensitive to temperature changes.

Enzymes can increase the rate of reactions without increasing the temperature. They do this by lowering the activation energy. They create a new reaction pathway, "a short cut".

New reaction pathway

Enzyme controlled reactions proceed 108 to 1011 times faster than corresponding non-enzymic reactions.

Substrate

The substrate of an enzyme are the reactants that are activated by the enzyme.

 

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