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Powerpoint Presentation: The Gene

 

Molecular Genetics Index

The Chemical Nature if the Gene
The Nucleic Acids
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
The Characteristics of the Genetic Code
The Genetic Code
Gene Expression
Translation
The lac Operon
Gene Mutations
Genetic Engineering
Electrophoresis

Topic Chapters Index

 

Conclusion

Enzymes are needed by this mould to synthesise vitamins and amino acids.
The production of these compounds is affected by mutation.
The inheritance pattern of these defective enzymes is the same as that of single genes.

Therefore ONE GENE corresponds to ONE ENZYME

Enzymes are proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes. They are all affected by mutations in the same way

Therefore ONE GENE corresponds to ONE PROTEIN

Some proteins are made of subunits each of which is independently affected by mutations (eg haemoglobin has 2 alpha subunits and 2 beta subunits).

Therefore ONE GENE corresponds to ONE POLYPEPTIDE

 

 

MOLECULAR GENETICS

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The Gene

Beedle and Tatum (1940) Experiments using the red bread mould Neurospora crassa.

  • This mould has the advantage of being a haploid individual so all the genes are expressed. Different individuals can be separated because the spores form in long thin "pods" called sacs.

  • Its requirements are simple.

  • It grows quickly and produces results in a few days.

 

Beedle and Tatum (1940)

 

Producing mutant strains

Alter the genes by mutation and you will alter the dietary requirements

Producing mutant strains

 

Cross breeding strains

Cross breeding strains

If four of the daughter spores give rise to colonies that are like the deficient parent and four give colonies that are like the wild type parent:

  • The condition is hereditary

  • It is caused by the mutation of a single gene

This is the pattern that Beedle and Tatum found.

 

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