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Powerpoint Presentation: Gene Therapy
Powerpoint Presentation: Genetically Modified Orgamisms

 

Genetics Index

Chromosomes
Meiosis
Meiosis: Crossing over
Mitosis and Meiosis
Introduction to Mendelian Genetics
Test Cross
Codominance
Multiple Alleles
Pedigree Charts
Twin Studies
The dihybrid cross
Dihybrid Cross : Test Cross
Autosomal Linkage
The Genetic Diagram for Linked Genes
Calculating the cross over value using a test cross
Sex determination and sex linkage
Sex linkage
Genetic diagram for sex linked genes
Blood Clotting and Haemophilia
The Retina and Daltonism
Cloning Animals
Cloning Plants

Topic Chapters Index

Source

Wikipedia: Pharming (genetics)
(last modified 19 September 2016)

Other pharming products

 

  • Agragen - human serum albumin in flax

  • Chlorogen, Inc. - cholera, anthrax, and plague vaccines, albumin, interferon for liver diseases including hepatitis C, elastin, 4HB, and insulin-like growth factor in tobacco chloroplasts

  • Dow Chemical Company - anti-cancer antibodies

  • Epicyte - spermicidal antibodies in corn

  • Genzyme - antithrombin III in goat milk

  • Iowa State University - unknown product in corn

  • Medicago Inc. - Pre-clinical trials of Influenza vaccine in alfalfa

  • Meristem Therapeutics - Lipase, lactoferrin, plasma proteins, collagen, antibodies (IgA, IgM), allergens and protease inhibitors in tobacco

  • Pharming - C1 inhibitor, human collagen 1, fibrinogen (with American Red Cross), and lactoferrin in cow milk

  • PPL Therapeutics - Alpha 1-antitrypsin for cystic fibrosis and emphysema in sheep milk

  • SemBioSys - insulin in safflower

  • Syngenta - Beta carotene in rice (this is "golden rice 2")

  • University of Arizona - Hepatitis C vaccine in potatoes

  • Ventria Bioscience - lactoferrin and lysozyme in rice

  • Washington State University - lactoferrin and lysozyme in barley

 

GENETICS

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Genetic Modification

Bt maize

Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium that produces a toxin (delta-endotoxin) which kills insects by affecting their gut lining.

The bacterium has been used as a pesticide since 1938. Farmers sprayed it onto crops.

The toxin is protein produced by the Cry gene which occurs on the plasmids of these bacteria.

Another bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens was engineered to contain this gene.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens naturally infects crop plants and inserts genes in their chromosomes.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is cultured with cells of the crop plant that is to be modified.

The infected cells are grown in tissue culture and clones of modified plants are produced.

The Cry gene is transferred along with a pesticide resistance gene so at the end the plants containing the Cry gene can be selected. The plants are sprayed with pesticide. Those that die will not possess the Cry gene.

The first Bt crops were produced in 1996 maize, potato, cotton, soybean.

 

Advantages of Bt maize

  • Only insects attacking the crop will be killed. So environmentally friendly

  • All tissues of the plant are protected, even the roots which are not normally reached by pesticide sprays

  • The pesticide is biodegradable it does not accumulate in the food chain

  • Result increased productivity with less environmental impact

Disadvantages of Bt maize

  • Pesticide resistance in insects develops rapidly (but careful crop management could limit this)

  • Pollen spreads the genes to wild species - recorded in Mexico to spread over 100km. But terminator genes could stop this

  • Pollen spreads genes to neighbouring crops of the same species, contaminating organic culture

  • Pollen itself contains the toxin so pollinators are affected

  • The technology is expensive so it is limited to developed nations

  • Could the pesticide in the tissue of the maize have long term effects on human health

 

Blood clotting factor IX in sheep

Gene plus components necessary for its expression are isolated.

Female foetal sheep are infected with an adenovirus carrying the gene for human factor IX.

Microinjection of a cell with DNA containing the desired gene is also possible.

The infected cells are used to make a nuclear clone from a sheep.

  • A sheep is induced to ovulate

  • Oocytes are collected

  • The nucleus is removed from the oocyte

  • A cell from the transformed foetus is fused with the anucleated oocyte.

  • The fused cells contain the nucleus of the foetal cells ie they are a (nuclear) clone of the foetus

  • The cells are allowed to divide and become an embryo

  • The embryo is implanted in a receptive ewe (female sheep)

  • The lamb is born

When the lambs grow into mature ewes they produce milk containing human factor IX protein for treating haemophilia.

 

Advantages

  • A complex molecule can be synthesized using the sheep's biochemical pathways (easier than fermenting engineered microbes)

  • The molecule is identical to human factor IX so there is no risk of an immune response

Problems

  • This technique is complex and costly to achieve

  • The success rate is low

  • Genetically modified food products could be accidentally consumed

  • There is an ethical issue

 

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