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Powerpoint Presentation: Defence Against Disease
Powerpoint Presentation: The Immunity
Powerpoint Presentation: The Monoclonal Antibodies

 

Animal Physiology Index

The Nervous System and Movement
Muscle contraction
The Nerve Impluse
The Synapse
The Major Factors controlling the Heartbeat
Reproduction
Digestion
The Alimentary Canal or Gut

Topic Chapters Index

Defence Against Disease Index

Defence Against Disease
Infectious disease
Immunity
Vaccines and Vaccination
PDF download: The Immune System


The uses of monoclonal antibodies

Diagnosing and identifying molecules

  • Preparations can be made to identify tissue types (e.g. blood typing for ABO or rhesus antigens) with a high degree of accuracy.

  • The preparation of pregnancy testing kits using anti HCG antibody linked to a coloured indicator.

  • The identification and localisation of molecules in cells or on the surface of cells. The antibodies can be combined with a fluorescent dye so that under UV light they glow. The study of the cytoskeleton has been helped a lot using this.

 

Medical therapy includes

  • The location and destruction of cancerous cells. Herceptin binds to a growth factor receptor on some tumour cells (e.g. breast cancer) blocking their development.

  • Omalizumab binds to IgE and helps to control asthma.

  • OKT3 binds to the surface of T-cells to prevent rejection in transplant patients.

 

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY

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Monoclonal Antibodies

Antibodies are specific in their binding with antigens.

Developing specific antibodies would be useful in fighting particular diseases, diagnosing infections and identifying molecules with antigenic properties wherever they occur.

The response of the immune system to an infection is polyclonal, producing a whole range of antibodies each time we are infected. If it were possible to isolate single antibody secreting cells it would die within a few generations.

To produce specific antibodies requires a monoclonal system that can keep producing antibody for a long period of time.

 

The method of producing monoclonal antibodies

 

monoclonal antibodies

Problems with monoclonal therapy

Sooner or later the mouse immunoglobulins will be identified by the human immune system of the patient and human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) will appear. This reduces their effectiveness and also can cause kidney damage. The solution may be to use transgenic mice that produce human immunoglobulins.

 

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