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Hydrogen Chemical Bonds

Hydrogen can take part in both electrovalent (ionic) and covalent bonding.

 

Electrovalent (ionic) Bonding

 

Hydrogen ion

Forming a cation (positive ion)

The hydrogen atom loses its electron and becomes a proton with one positive charge.

 

 

Hydrigen ion

Forming a anion (negative ion)

The hydrogen atom gains an electron and becomes an ion with one negative charge

 

Covalent Bonding

Hydrogen

Each hydrogen atom shares its electron with the other hydrogen atom.

 

Acids

All acids form hydrogen ions (cations) in solution. The strength of the acid will depend on how many hydrogen ions are present in the solution.

 

Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

(The H+ and the OH- ions from the water in the solution are not shown)

Sulfuric acid

 

Nitric Acid (HNO3)

(The H+ and the OH- ions from the water in the solution are not shown)

Nitric acid

 

Hydrochloric acid (HCl)

Hydrogen chloride gas is covalently bonded. When it dissolves in water it ionizes.

HCL gas

A molecule of hydrogen chloride gas

 

Below: Hydrochloric acid (The H+ and the OH- ions from the water in the solution are not shown)

 

Hydrchloric acid

 

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