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Group 1 : The Alkali Metals

Reactions
The Alkali Metals
Precipitate reactions

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Group 1 : The Alkali Metals : Metal Hydroxides

 

1. With acids

The metal hydroxide is acting as an alkali. When an alkali reacts with an acid, a neutralisation reaction occurs forming salt and water.

Reaction 1

Equation 1

 

2. With ammonium chloride

The metal hydroxide is acting as an alkali. When reacted with ammonium chloride, ammonia gas is produced. The other products are salt and water.

Reaction 2

Equation 2

 

3. With carbon dioxide

Reaction 1 : The metal hydroxide reacts with the carbon dioxide to produce the metal carbonate and water. When potassium is the metal the potassium hydroxide produced is not very soluble and forms a white precipitate. This is the standard test for carbon dioxide gas. It is known as the lime water test.

Reaction 3

Equation 3

 

Reaction 2 : If carbon dioxide continues to be passed through the solution it will react with the metal carbonate forming the metal hydrogen carbonate. The metal hydrogen carbonate is soluble. Any precipitate formed during reaction 1 will slowly dissolve as the metal carbonate is converted to the metal hydrogen carbonate.

Reaction 4

Equation 4

 

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