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History and Geography
Essays - Past Examples and Models Index

History

Start for Arab-Israeli Essay
Cuban Missile Crisis
France During World War II
Middle East 1948-1982
Origins of the Cold War
International Relations 1953-1962
Labour Governments 1945-1951

Geography

Developing Strategies
Agriculture in LEDCs
Urbanisation
Population Politics (Comparative Table)
Globalisation
Mega Cities

 

History and Geography Revision Index

Documents
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Links and References

Specific Subject Information and Revision Help

Tips on Studying History
IB and OI Grade History and Geography Revision
IB Biology
IB Physics
IB Math Studies

 

Globalisation is a result of:

  1. Improved communications - Internet, IT etc.

  2. The lowering of transport - distance and transport costs become less important

  3. Gradual removal of barriers to world trade - influence of WTO

  4. MNCs

 

 

 

 

IB AND OI HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY REVISION

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Theme : Globalisation

The increasing interconnectedness of the world economically, culturally and politically

  • develops from internationalisation

  • the extension of economic activities across national boundaries

  • leads to a more extensive geographical pattern of economic activity

The ties that bind the world together are:

 

1) Economic
Trade, investment and migration. The movement of goods, money and people around the globe brings far off places closer together. The WTO has played a vital role in the increase in world trade.

 

2) Political
Increasing role played by the UN around the world epitomises the developing cooperation between nations.

 

3) Trade Blocs
Many countries are now in some sort of trade agreement with their regional neighbours. EU is the most advanced model.

 

4) Growing importance of cross-border pressure groups
Amnesty International. Combined actions of these organisations and others have resulted in a growing framework of international rules on trade, the environment, human rights, war, and other aspects of international relationships.

 

5) Mixing of cultures
Another important dimension of globalisation that occurred through

  • migration

  • the rapid spread of news, ideas and fashion through the media, trade, travel and the growth of global brands such as Nike, Coca Cola and McDonald's that serve as common reference points.

 

MNCs:
"A company that has the power to coordinate and control operations in more than one country , even if it does not own them." - Peter Dicken

 

FDI
Overseas investments in physical capital by transnational corporations.

 

MNCs are the driving force behind economic globalisation

  • they are the capitalist enterprises that engage in FDI and organise the production of goods and services in more than one country.

  • in some countries and regions their influence on the economy is huge.

  • they play a major role in world trade in terms of what and where they buy and sell.

  • a proportion of world trade is intra-firm, taking place within TNCs e.g. car manufacturing - intra-firm with engines, gearboxes and other key components produced in one country and exported for assembly elsewhere.

The intense global competition for market share has lead to the growing domination of the largest companies. The 10 largest corporations in their field now control:

86% of the telecommunications sector

85% of the pesticides industry

70% of the computer industry

 

Spatial Division of Labour
Labour intensive production of components will be situated in low-wage areas, while the production of high-technology and high value-added parts will require a skilled or well-educated workforce.

 

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