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The Agricultural Revolution Index

Introduction to the Agricultural Revolution

The Industrial Revolution Index

Introduction to the First Industrial Revolution

The Textile Industry Index

Introduction to the Textile Industry
John Kay and the Flying Shuttle
James Hargreaves and the Spinning Jenny
Richard Arkwright and the Water Frame
Samuel Crompton and the Spinning Mule
Brief History of the Cotton Industry

History Chapters Main Index

 

Chronology of the Textile Industry

1733

Kay patented the Flying Shuttle.

1730

1742

Cotton mills were opened at Birmingham and Northampton.

1743

Lancashire mill owners imported East India yarns to improve the quality of textiles

1740

1753

An angry mob of weavers wrecked Kay's house.

1750

1764

Hargreaves designed the Spinning Jenny.
Arkwright designed the Water Frame.

1768

An angry mob destroyed Arkwright's mill at Chorely

1769

Arkwright patented the Water Frame.

1760

1770

Hargreaves patented the Spinning Jenny.

1771

Arkwright opened his mill at Cromford.

1773

The first all-cotton textiles were produced.

1779

Crompton designed the Spinning Mule.

1770

1783

Arkwright's mill at Masson was opened.

1785

Cartwright patented the power loom.

1787

Cotton goods production was 10 times more than in 1770.

1789

Samuel Slater brought textile machinery design to the US.

1780

1790

Arkwright's steam powered factory was built in Nottingham.

1792

Grimshaw's factory in Manchester was destroyed by an angry mob of weavers and spinners.
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.

1790

1804

Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a device using punched card to weave complex designs.

1806

English textile mills were forced to close down as supplies of cotton from the US South ran short.

1800

1813

Horrocks invented the speed batton

1810

 

TWO CENTURIES OF REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE

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The Industrial Revolution

Edmund Cartwright and the Power Loom

 

Edmund Cartwright

Edmund Cartwright

 

Edmund Cartwright was originally from Nottingham. After graduating from Oxford University in 1779, he became the rector of Goadby church, Marwood in Leicestershire. In 1784 he visited Arkwright's cotton-spinning mill. Cartwright was sure that he could develop similar technology to benefit weaving.

In 1785, he patented the first version of his power loom and set up a factory in Doncaster. He was no businessman, however, and he went bankrupt in 1793, which forced him to close his factory.

 

Power Loom

A loom from the 1890s
from Textile Mercury, published by Marsden in Manchester in 1892

 

Cartwright was a prolific inventor. He patented a wool-combing machine in 1789 and a steam engine that used alcohol, as well as a machine for making rope, in 1797. He even helped the American, Robert Fulton, with his steamboat inventions.

The power loom was quickly integrated into the weaving industry. It was improved upon by William Horrocks, famous for his invention of the variable speed batton in 1813. The power loom was used alongside Crompton's Spinning Mule in many factories. Although Cartwright did not make very much money from any of his patents, in 1809 the House of Commons voted him a sum of £10000 in recognition of his contribution to the textile industry. Cartwright retired to a farm in Kent, where he spent the rest of his life improving farm machinery.

 

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