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The Agricultural Revolution Index

Introduction to the Agricultural Revolution

The Industrial Revolution Index

Introduction to the First Industrial Revolution

The Textile Industry Index

Introduction to the Textile Industry
John Kay and the Flying Shuttle
James Hargreaves and the Spinning Jenny
Richard Arkwright and the Water Frame
Edmund Cartwright and the Power Loom
Brief History of the Cotton Industry

History Chapters Main Index

 

Chronology of the Textile Industry

1733

Kay patented the Flying Shuttle.

1730

1742

Cotton mills were opened at Birmingham and Northampton.

1743

Lancashire mill owners imported East India yarns to improve the quality of textiles

1740

1753

An angry mob of weavers wrecked Kay's house.

1750

1764

Hargreaves designed the Spinning Jenny.
Arkwright designed the Water Frame.

1768

An angry mob destroyed Arkwright's mill at Chorely

1769

Arkwright patented the Water Frame.

1760

1770

Hargreaves patented the Spinning Jenny.

1771

Arkwright opened his mill at Cromford.

1773

The first all-cotton textiles were produced.

1779

Crompton designed the Spinning Mule.

1770

1783

Arkwright's mill at Masson was opened.

1785

Cartwright patented the power loom.

1787

Cotton goods production was 10 times more than in 1770.

1789

Samuel Slater brought textile machinery design to the US.

1780

1790

Arkwright's steam powered factory was built in Nottingham.

1792

Grimshaw's factory in Manchester was destroyed by an angry mob of weavers and spinners.
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.

1790

1804

Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a device using punched card to weave complex designs.

1806

English textile mills were forced to close down as supplies of cotton from the US South ran short.

1800

1813

Horrocks invented the speed batton

1810

 

TWO CENTURIES OF REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE

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The Industrial Revolution

Samuel Crompton and the Spinning Mule

Samuel Crompton was a mill worker who had learnt to spin using a Spinning Jenny. He noted that one of the problems with the Spinning Jenny was that the thread was not strong enough and it kept breaking. In 1779, Crompton designed a new machine which he called the Spinning Mule. His machine combined the best features of both the Spinning Jenny and Arkwright's Water Frame. The Spinning Mule produced a very fine and even thread which was suitable to spin yarns for making muslin.

 

Samuel Crompton

This image was provided by Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council
for use in the Cotton Town digitisation project: www.cottontown.org

 

However, Crompton was poor and did not have enough money to develop his invention in order to patent it. He tried to raise money by playing his home-made violin at concerts. Crompton was eventually tricked by some textile manufacturers into giving away the secret of his invention. He never patented the Spinning Mule and was paid very little for divulging its secret to the manufacturers.

 

Spinning Mule

Samuel Crompton's Spinning Mule
by Pezzab (Wikipedia Commons: Spinning-mule.jpg)
[CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

 

The Spinning Mule was quickly adopted by the textile industry. In March 1792, an angry crowd of spinners broke into Grimshaw's factory in Manchester and destroyed all the Spinning Mules which had been installed there.

 

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