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The Agricultural Revolution Index

Introduction to the Agricultural Revolution

The Industrial Revolution Index

Introduction to the First Industrial Revolution

The Development of Roads and Railways Index

The Development of Roads : Telford and MacAdam
The Development of the Railway
The Development of the Steam Locomotive :
Richard Trevithick

The Development of the Steam Locomotive :
John Blenkinsop

The Development of the Steam Locomotive :
George Stephenson

Building the Railways : Introduction
Building the Railways : Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Railway Mania
The Social and Economic Effects of the Railway

History Chapters Main Index

 

Chronology of the Development of Road Transport 1730 - 1908

1730

Turnpike roads are constructed

1730's

1760

Cugnot invented a steam propelled vehicle

1769's

1780

Murdock developed a road steam vehicle

1786's

1800

Trevithick's passenger steam vehicle

1801's

1810

Macadam developed a new type of road construction

1810's

First horse-drawn bus system operated

1812's

Telford's London to Holyhead road constructed

1815's

1820

Dr. Gurney's steam coach operated

1827's

1860

Lenoir's gas engine used in road vehicles

1860's

Véloe's péde bicycle introduced

1861's

1870

Penny farthing bicycles introduced

1870's

Otto's four stroke engine developed

1876's

1880

Benz's petrol-driven motorwagen developed

1885's

1890

Rubber tyres used on bicycles

1890's

Michelin Brothers used air-filled tyres on cars

1895's

Motorised omnibuses used in Britain

1898's

Gear boxes used in Benz's cars

1899's

1900

Model T Ford started production

1908's

 

TWO CENTURIES OF REVOLTIONARY CHANGE

Custom Search

The Industrial Revolution

Roads and Railways : Introduction

 

Photo of a model railway c. 1960  Shirley Burchill

Photo of a model railway c. 1960 © Shirley Burchill

 

Whilst it is easier to study the development of canals, railways and roads separately, it must not be forgotten that their development is linked by "cause and effect". Canals were built to carry heavy freight more easily. At the same time, road builders reacted to the competition. The existing roads were upgraded, and the Turnpike Act ensured that new roads were built. These new and improved roads allowed stagecoaches to travel much faster and speeded up communication. Canals were never seriously used as passenger carriers because they were too slow.

To solve the problem of transporting the coal from the colliery to the canal-side for shipment, the colliery engineers constructed horse-drawn wagons which could be pulled over a specially laid track. These tracks were the first railways. It was not long before the potential of the railway was realised, and by the 19th century, railway development escalated. Rail took over from both road and canal as the most popular form of transport.

 

Chronology of the Development of the Railways 1789 - 1890

 

1760's

Abraham Darby laid an iron plateway

1760's

Nicholas Cugnot invented the first steam propelled vehicle

1760

1786's

William Murdock invented a model road engine similar to Cugnot's

1789's

William Jessop introduced flanged waggon wheels

1780

1801's

Trevithick's first passenger steam vehicle went into operation

1805's

Wandsworth-Croydon public railway opened

1806's

Oystermouth railway - first passenger railway in Wales was built

1808's

Trevithick's 'Catch -me-who-can' locomotive was built

1800

1812's

Blenkinsop's railway locomotive hauled coal from Middleton to Leeds

1813's

Hedley's 'Puffing Billy' was built for use on non-toothed track

1810

1820's

Wrought iron rails used to make railways

1825's

Stockton to Darlington railway line opened

1827's

First railway tunnel built under Liverpool

1829's

Stephenson's 'Rocket' wins Rainhill trials (Britain)
Marc Sequin built first French steam locomotive

1820

1930's

Liverpool to Manchester line opened (Britain)

1832's

First steam locomotive powered railway opened in France

1835's

Joseph Locke designed bulkhead rail

1837's

Telegraph used to connect signal boxes

1830

1840's

First railway excursion

1846's

Standard gauge introduced in Britain

1840

1851's

First refrigerated coaches

1859's

Pullman cars

1850

1863's

First underground railway

1865's

USA adopted standard gauge

1869's

First rack railway (Mount Washington, USA)

1860

1879's

Von Seimen's electric train operated in Berlin

1870

1881's

First electric passenger train used in Germany

1889's

Block signalling and continuous braking in Britain

1880

1890's

First electric underground train

1890

1912's

First diesel electric trains (Sweden)

1910

 

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