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The Carnot Cycle Reversed
As long as there is no friction and the isothermal changes are made slowly, as in the heat engine case, the Carnot cycle is totally reversible.  
   
In the reversed case, the net effect is that work is done by some external agent and this results in internal energy being transferred from a body at low temperature to one at higher temperature, the opposite of the "natural" way things go.  
 
We therefore have here the basis of a refrigerator.
   
1. Gas in small volume, at temperature TH
   
2. Gas undergoes adiabatic expansion until temperature reaches TC
  Work is done by the gas during this stage
   
3. Gas placed in contact with heat sink (at temperature TC)
   
4. Gas undergoes a slow isothermal expansion at TC
  Work is done by the gas during this stage
   
5. Gas removed from source and insulated
6. Adiabatic compression until temperature reaches TH
  Work is done on the gas during this stage
   
7. Gas placed in contact with the heat source (at temperature TH)
   
8. Slow isothermal compression at TC
  Work is done on the gas during this stage
   
  now back to 1 and so on and so on ...
 
     
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