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The Discovery of the Neutron
Chadwick's discovery of the neutron involved consideration of collisions between alpha particles and protons and between alpha particles and nitrogen nuclei.
Here we prove the formula stated on the page discussing the discovery of the neutron.
Before collision, we assume that the proton (or nitrogen nucleus) has negligible speed (ie we assume it's stationary)
 
 
 
After collision, both particles are moving
 
 
If there are no external forces acting, momentum is conserved, therefore
 
and, if the collision is elastic, K.E. is conserved, therefore,
 
Eliminating v from these two equations gives something like this
 
which, after a few minutes messing about gives
 
QED
which stands for "quite easily done"... (don't believe what anybody else tells you about these letters...)
 
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